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Quantum notions contradicted common sense

Bohr had a tremendous influence not only on physics, but also on physicists who were fortunate enough to work with him, or at least near him. In such cases, they talk about creating a "school." And we can say that although the results obtained by many of his students are not formally related to the name of Bohr (that is, published as works of only the students themselves), they would not actually have been obtained without his participation and influence.

An amazing feature of Bohr the researcher, a feature of his genius was the ability to combine incompatible, seemingly, ideas, to compare what was traditionally considered incomparable. Hence - his famous principle of complementarity. “Opposites are the essence of complementarity” - one of Bohr's favorite sayings. Bohr himself interpreted this principle very widely, far beyond the boundaries of physics. What is the meaning of Bohr in a new approach to the study of nature?

Quantum concepts appeared in physics at the beginning of the century (Planck's theory of thermal radiation, 1900; Einstein's hypothesis of light quanta, 1905; Bohr's atom theory, 1913). These ideas contradicted classical physics - Newtonian mechanics and Faraday - Maxwell electrodynamics. They contradicted “common sense”, which is formed under the influence of everyday human experience. Such a contradiction is understandable, since we are directly dealing with macroscopic phenomena and objects, while quantum laws are clearly manifested only for microscopic objects (atoms, electrons, and the like). Therefore, the creation of quantum theory required fantastic efforts. Even when quantum mechanics was already created in 1925-1926, that is, the corresponding mathematical apparatus was built, an understanding of the meaning of the introduced concepts has not yet been achieved. In this understanding, the main role belongs to Bohr - we are talking about the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.

By the way, in that conversation, in which I participated in 1961, Bohr expressed the opinion that there is no “Copenhagen interpretation”, and quantum mechanics itself is an interpretation of observations. But for many years not everyone agreed with this point of view, and even now the stream of articles discussing the fundamentals of quantum mechanics has not exhausted. In essence, the stumbling block is wave-particle duality: the same object (say, an electron) has both particle and wave properties. But can a wave be a particle (corpuscle)? And can a particle be a wave? The answer of quantum mechanics (Bohr's answer, its principle of complementarity) is as follows: the particle and wave properties of an electron are manifested in completely objective, but in different physical conditions that are “complementary” to each other (in conditions where the particle properties are clearly expressed, the wave properties are not significant and vice versa).

In other words, an “on its own” electron is neither a particle nor a wave, it is a more complex non-classical object that behaves like a wave in some physical conditions (for example, during electron diffraction) and as a corpuscle in others (for example, when passing through a camera Wilson).

Physics has not encountered a similar situation before. Of course, my explanations here are completely insufficient. I try only to answer the question posed, a more detailed discussion of which goes far beyond the possible limits of our conversation.

As you rightly note, Bohr interpreted his principle of complementarity quite widely, tried to extend it to biology, psychology and sociology. For me personally, these attempts by Bohr are not impressive, but something else is important for us: Bohr's analysis of the foundations of quantum theory is an example of dialectical thinking. And undoubtedly, Bohr's conclusions played a significant role in the victory of the dialectical approach in the analysis of phenomena over the old metaphysical way of thinking. Skinny black girl porn star. After all, she was only a teenager. She had a very sexy body, and even more so, a very sexy smile. She was the perfect girl - one that was the perfect girl for this film.

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