A distinctive feature of this form of cooperation is that each party to the agreement puts on a joint line a definite, well-defined amount of tonnage. In modern international shipping, shipowners usually resort to such agreements, using conventional tonnage on the lines. The most widely joint lines are represented in the Far Eastern direction (over 71%), Australian (over 80%), the west coast of South America (over 43%).
The efficiency of international freight lines largely depends (among other factors) on the activities of agency firms in the ports they serve. Such firms, combining the functions of an agent and a freight broker, attract and book cargoes for ships of the line. Together with the shipowner's division engaged in the organization and management of the line, determine the effectiveness of its work. This relationship is supported by the system of payment of linear agency firms in the form of a certain percentage of the commission from the amount of freight for the transportation of the cargo they booked.
The crucial importance of the activities of such firms leads shipowners to the need to create their own independent agent companies in the most important base ports of the line. Also common in international liner shipping has been the practice of joint booking bureaus, which are created by shipowners already cooperating under the joint service agreement line. The bureau, located in the port of one of the partners, extends its activities to the ports of third countries. Cargoes are booked on behalf of the joint line.
Over the past 15–20 years, revolutionary technological changes have occurred in the carriage of goods by sea. The rapid growth in the containerization of general cargo and the concomitant rapid development of expensive specialized fleet led to the birth of new organizational forms of shipowners' cooperation. The high level of capital investments in the organization of the operation of container lines (using a specialized fleet, berths, terminals, loading and unloading equipment, land transport) forces shipowners to combine efforts and funds, to create shipping consortia - uniting several companies into one large one.
A shipping consortium may be a corporation, a joint stock company, i.e. a company with a complete merger of participants' capital. The degree of integration of shipping companies depends on the specific characteristics of the region served by the lines, government restrictions and regulations, etc.
Consortia are close enough to such forms of cooperation as joint lines and pool agreements. However, there are significant differences that determine their specificity. This is, as a rule, the independence of the enterprise, the legal individuality, the propensity for commercial independence (much more than with joint lines and pool agreements); The distribution of income between partners is based on net profit, and not on gross income. When creating a shipping consortium, the obligations of companies (members of the consortium) go much further than the simple participation in the capital and dividends.
Consortia in international liner shipping began to be created in the mid 60s. The founders of such associations were Western European shipowners. The cooperation of Japanese line companies in this area began later, and the integration of partners in them is less pronounced than in Western Europe. Shipping lines of the USA tend to cooperate within national shipping companies.
The emergence of consortia has had and has a profound impact on the system of linear conferences, the balance of forces in the conference itself changes, and lines that are not part of the consortium, with certain traffic flows and directions, are forced to join it or “get out of the game”, putting their vessels to directions. In such cases, the conference actually determines the consortium level of tariff rates. With a sufficiently large traffic flow, two or more consortia can operate. תמונות של נערות ליווי כוסיות ב dizengoff-escort.com עם מבחר בחורות גדול
View the Top, Frequently Viewed Products