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Science geology

In recent years, with the help of new technology, the old sciences have been updated: geography, meteorology, oceanology and many others. Of great importance for Quaternary geology are polar studies on the modern great ice sheets; in Greenland and in Antarctica. Missiles piercing the atmosphere with thin needles measure temperatures and air movements. Hovering over the planet, satellites with the eyes of instruments look at the cloud cover, photograph it, transmit information to the earth. Many new facts and ideas were revealed to climatologists. f-escort.com Accurate geodetic measurements made it possible to detect very slow uplifts and subsidence of the earth's crust. Geophysical instruments are penetrating deeper into the depths of the earth. Oceanologists carried out countless measurements of the depths of the sea, discovered hitherto unknown underwater ridges, cracks, and depressions; geologists have established the age of many islands. The most interesting materials were obtained by measuring the magnetism of rocks. They made it possible to clarify the position of the earth's axis (poles) in the past. Moreover, the definitions of the former position of the poles, carried out on different continents, gave stunning results. Each continent has its own pole position. The simplest and most convincing explanation for this discrepancy: the continents moved relative to each other. Once magnetized particles precipitated oriented like a compass needle. The sediments were petrified and the particles froze in their original position. If the layers retained their former position, then the magnetized particles should still indicate the place where the geomagnetic pole was located during their deposition. That is, to the same place from all over the world, as the compass needlepoints show now. And since their testimony does not agree, it means that the continents moved.

Many other facts testify to the movements of the continents (although so far this problem cannot be considered conclusively clarified). It is impossible to list all the interesting and important new information received by geologists over the past decades. Remember at least the great lunar achievements of mankind! And yet, no matter how great the progress of the technique of geological research, no matter how many new facts have been obtained, geological theories are slightly behind. Thought does not keep pace. An avalanche of small messages and notes engulfs geology. There are few large generalizing works. To date, thousands of determinations of the absolute age of Quaternary rocks have been carried out. The modern glaciers and permafrost zones have been investigated in detail. Spore-pollen tests; finds of fossil remains of Pleistocene animals; excavations of numerous settlements and temporary hunting sites of ancient people; hundreds of thousands of boreholes, pits and described quaternary outcrops; determination of paleotemperatures by various methods; detailed analysis of glacial landforms, as well as sea and river terraces; careful measurements of modern movements of the earth's crust; observations of active volcanoes, fluctuations in water levels in rivers, lakes and seas, horizontal movements of the earth's surface, migrations of animals and plants, and displacements of geographical zones. Dozens of different sciences provide materials for Quaternary researchers. Such an exorbitant abundance of information is no longer a blessing, but a disaster. Is it possible to encompass with thought all these sometimes conflicting materials? Perhaps because of this, the heated debates of Quaternary geologists have not ceased to this day. Even scholars studying the same area express conflicting opinions. There are still many local names, like local geological languages ​​and dialects. Here, perhaps, the old proverb justifies itself most fully: how many specialists, so many opinions.

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